The city is one of the younger European capitals, with the first references appearing in 1237. Power in the city was consolidated by the early Hohenzollerns in the 15th Century beginning a dominance that would last five hundred years. During the first half of the 16th Century the radical ideas of Martin Luther and the Reformation spread throughout this region of Germany, Brandenburg (yes, there is a reason it’s called the Brandenburg Gate). In the early 19th Century Napoleon occupied the city, dismantling the Quadriga, the horse drawn chariot crowning the gate, and taking it to Paris. After Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo the Quadriga was returned to Berlin in 1814.